Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin : The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease

Bernstein, Paul S. and Li, Binxing and Vachali, Preejith P. and Gorusupudi, Aruna and Shyam, Rajalekshmy and Henriksen, Bradley S. and Nolan, John M. (2016) Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin : The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 50. pp. 34-66. ISSN 1350-9462

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The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work was supported by National Eye Institute grants EY-11600 and EY-14800 and by an unrestricted departmental grant to the Moran Eye Center from Research to Prevent Blindness . The authors gratefully acknowledge the expert critical reading and editorial assistance of Kelly Nelson. Funding Information: Dr. Nolan is currently funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the CREST project (code: 281096) and also holds a Howard Chair at Waterford Institute of Technology in Human Nutrition Research. Within his capacity as a director of Nutrasight Consultancy Ltd., Dr Nolan carries out consultancy work for nutraceutical companies, including Bausch + Lomb, Heidelberg Engineering, Alliance Pharma PLC , and MacuHealth. Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Uncontrolled Keywords: /dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700/2731
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Depositing User: Admin SSL
Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2022 23:05
Last Modified: 10 Aug 2023 04:15

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