Security in Brain-Computer Interfaces : State-of-the-Art, Opportunities, and Future Challenges

Bernal, Sergio López and Celdrán, Alberto Huertas and Pérez, Gregorio Martínez and Barros, Michael Taynnan and Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan (2021) Security in Brain-Computer Interfaces : State-of-the-Art, Opportunities, and Future Challenges. ACM Computing Surveys, 54 (1). ISSN 0360-0300

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Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have significantly improved the patients' quality of life by restoring damaged hearing, sight, and movement capabilities. After evolving their application scenarios, the current trend of BCI is to enable new innovative brain-To-brain and brain-To-The-Internet communication paradigms. This technological advancement generates opportunities for attackers, since users' personal information and physical integrity could be under tremendous risk. This work presents the existing versions of the BCI life-cycle and homogenizes them in a new approach that overcomes current limitations. After that, we offer a qualitative characterization of the security attacks affecting each phase of the BCI cycle to analyze their impacts and countermeasures documented in the literature. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned, highlighting research trends and future challenges concerning security on BCIs.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Funding Information: This work has been supported by the Irish Research Council under the government of Ireland post-doc fellowship (Grant No. GOIPD/2018/466), by the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant No. 16/RC/3948 and co-funded under the European Regional Development Fund and by FutureNeuro industry partners, by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme through the Marie Skłodowska-Curie under Grant Agreement No. 839553, by Armasuisse S+T with project CYD-C-2020003, by the University of Zürich UZH, and by the European Union Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under grant agreement No. 830927, namely the H2020 Concordia Project. Authors’ addresses: S. L. Bernal and G. M. Perez, University of Murcia, Departamento de Ingeniería de la Información y las Comunicaciones, Murcia, Spain; emails: {slopez, gregorio}; A. H. Celdrán, Waterford Institute of Technology, Telecommunication Software and Systems Group, Waterford, Ireland and Communication Systems Group CSG, Department of Informatics IfI, University of Zurich UZH, CH 8050 Zürich, Switzerland; email:; M. T. Barros, University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, Essex, UK, Tampere University, CBIG/BioMediTech in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere, Finland; email:; S. Balasubramaniam, Waterford Institute of Technology, Telecommunication Software and Systems Group, Waterford, Ireland, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, FutureNeuro, the SFI Research Centre for Chronic and Rare Neurological Diseases, Dublin, Ireland; email: Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from © 2020 Association for Computing Machinery. 0360-0300/2020/12-ART11 $15.00 Publisher Copyright: © 2021 ACM.
Uncontrolled Keywords: /dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2600/2614
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Depositing User: Admin SSL
Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2022 23:07
Last Modified: 13 Aug 2023 22:50

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